Last post here quite some time ago, but maybe my solution is still usefull:
I had similar problems:
- After connecting my encrypted HDD to my Windows10-PC the TrueCrypt-header was corrupted
- Embedded volume backup header could be found and was restored
- TrueCrypt-mounting worked, however no proper filesystem was detected by windows file explorer (available/used size was 0 bytes)
- Tested some file rescue programs ("TestDisk", "FileScavenger", "Recuva") -> no success
- "Western Digital Data LifeGuard Diagnostics" showed that everything was ok with the drive itself
- With "WinHex" I checked if there was any readable text in the mounted volume -> there was none, all random data
- So I concluded that the mounted volume was not properly decrypted (before I always suspected just a broken MFT or something in the decrypted volume)
- My very last try was then TestCrypt. I ran the diagnostics (~15min) and it found in total three volume headers. Mounting one of them (right-click on it, Windows setting "enforce signed drivers" has to be deactivated for this) provided my data!
My assumption is that when connecting the drive Windows 10 did not detect a proper file system and just overwrote the TestCrypt-header (grrr). Then TrueCrypt somehow failed to properly restore the header from the embedded backup header. TestCrypt finally found it and made my day!
Good luck to all! (I have seen many desperate posts when reading several help forums today)